Pinar del Rio
Cienfuegos is a city on the southern coast of Cuba, capital of Cienfuegos Province. It is located about 250 km from Havana, and has a population of 150,000. The city is dubbed La Perla del Sur (Pearl of the South). Cienfuegos literally translates to "One Hundred fires". Cien meaning one hundred, and fuego(s) meaning fires. Cienfuegos is the only city in Cuba that was founded by the French.
The city was settled by French immigrants from Bordeaux and Louisiana, led by Don Louis de Clouet, on April 22, 1819. Its original name was Fernardina de Jagua, in honor of Ferdinand VII of Spain. The city was subsequently in 1829 named Cienfuegos, sharing the name with Cienfuegos, a Captain General in this time, in the island. Near Cienfuegos was the scene of a battle on May 11, 1898, between American marines who attempted to sever underwater Spanish communication lines and the Spanish defenders.
During the Cuban Revolution the city saw an uprising against Fulgencio Batista and was bombed, on September 5, 1957. In 1969 and 1970, Soviet Union naval vessels visited the city. This appeared to be in violation of the Kennedy-Khrushchev agreements of 1962. However, there was no notice given by the United States, and no confrontation ensued.